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RNS Number : 7170F
Full year results announcement
IAG period highlights on results:
• Fourth quarter operating profit €585 million before exceptional items (2016: €620 million)
• Passenger unit revenue for the quarter up 0.4 per cent, up 2.4 per cent at constant currency
• Non-fuel unit costs before exceptional items for the quarter are up 0.5 per cent, up 3.2 per cent at constant currency
• Fuel unit costs before exceptional items for the quarter up 1.2 per cent, up 2.2 per cent at constant currency
• Operating profit before exceptional items for the year to
• Passenger unit revenue for the year down 1.0 per cent and up 1.5 per cent at constant currency
• Fuel unit costs for the year before exceptional items down 7.8 per cent, down 9.1 per cent at constant currency
• Non-fuel unit costs for the year before exceptional items down 1.3 per cent and up 2.7 per cent at constant currency
• Cash of €6,676 million at
• Adjusted net debt to EBITDAR decreased 0.3 to 1.5 times
• Profit after tax before exceptional items €2,243 million up 12.7 per cent, and adjusted earnings per share up 14.0 per cent
"We're reporting a very good full year performance with an operating profit of €3,015 million before exceptional items, up 18.9 per cent compared to last year.
"Passenger unit revenue improved 1.5 per cent at constant currency and we benefitted from reduced fuel costs for most of 2017 though our fuel bill started to rise in quarter 4.
"All our airlines performed extremely well with their best-ever individual financial results, strong operational performances and commitment to customer service. The turnaround in Vueling, following the challenges of 2016, has been particularly outstanding.
"In quarter 4 we reported an operating profit of €585 million, down from €620 million last year. Our strong performance continued with passenger unit revenue up 2.4 per cent at constant currency. The operating profit was impacted significantly by changes in the employee bonus provision in the quarter compared to the previous year.
"We're pleased to confirm that the Board is proposing a final dividend of
"Our confidence in IAG's future remains undaunted and today we're announcing our intention to undertake a share buyback of €500 million during 2018".
At current fuel prices and exchange rates, IAG expects its operating profit for 2018 to show an increase year-on-year. Both passenger unit revenue and non-fuel unit costs are expected to improve at constant currency.
This announcement contains inside information and is disclosed in accordance with the Company's obligations under the Market Abuse Regulation (EU) No 596/2014.
Certain statements included in this report are forward-looking and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements can typically be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as "expects", "may", "will", "could", "should", "intends", "plans", "predicts", "envisages" or "anticipates" and include, without limitation, any projections relating to results of operations and financial conditions of
It is not reasonably possible to itemise all of the many factors and specific events that could cause the forward-looking statements in this report to be incorrect or that could otherwise have a material adverse effect on the future operations or results of an airline operating in the global economy. Further information on the primary risks of the business and the risk management process of the Group is given in the Annual Report and Accounts 2016; these documents are available on www.iagshares.com.
IAG Investor Relations
Tel: +44 (0)208 564 2900
Consolidated income statement
Consolidated income statement
IATA market growths
The air travel industry had another strong year, with above-trend growth. Momentum increased over the year following on from a weak six months in 2016.
Overall capacity increased 6.3 per cent and the fastest growing regions were the
IATA market growths
In 2017, IAG increased capacity, measured in available seat kilometres (ASKs) by 2.6 per cent including the launch of LEVEL in June. Capacity was higher at all airlines and through each region except for
IAG passenger load factor was one point higher than last year and at 82.6 per cent, was 1.2 points higher than the IATA average.
In IAG's Domestic markets capacity was higher by 5.4 per cent with increases at Vueling and
The Group's European capacity was broadly flat year on year. Increases at Aer Lingus, including a new service to Split and additional winter flying was offset by reductions at
IAG increased its capacity to
After decreases in 2016,
Exchange impact before exceptional items
Exchange rate movements are calculated by retranslating current year results at prior year exchange rates. The reported revenues and expenditures are impacted by translation currency from converting results from currencies other than euro to the Group's reporting currency of euro, primarily
The Group hedges its economic exposure from transacting in foreign currencies. The Group does not hedge the translation impact of reporting in euros.
The annual weighted average exchange rates from a translation and transaction perspective are set out as follows.
On a reported basis, passenger revenue for the Group rose 1.6 per cent versus the prior year, with 2.5 points of adverse currency, while capacity was increased 2.6 per cent. At constant currency ('ccy'), passenger unit revenue (passenger revenue per ASK) increased 1.5 per cent with slightly higher yields (passenger revenue/revenue passenger kilometre) up 0.3 per cent and a 1 point rise in passenger load factor.
Continuing the upward trend in revenues reported at the end of 2016, passenger unit revenues improved throughout the year with increases versus last year in all quarters except quarter one. The performance was based on stronger yields and higher passenger load factors. In the Domestic market, the Group's passenger unit revenues were down due to capacity increases at Vueling aimed to reduce seasonality peaks in its schedule.
Capacity growth in
The Group carried over 104 million passengers, an increase of 4.1 per cent from 2016, with strong demand at LEVEL and passenger load factor improvement at three of the other four airlines. The Group's Net Promoter Score was 16.8 per cent, achieving our on target performance of 16.5. This was a new metric for the Group this year.
Following a competitive trading environment in 2016, IAG Cargo adapted to an unexpectedly buoyant market in 2017 particularly in the second half of the year. Cargo revenue for the period increased by 8.0 per cent at constant currency, with volume measured in tonne kilometres (CTK) increasing by 5.6 per cent on a capacity increase of 4.8 per cent. Trading conditions were challenging in certain regions, however benefitted from a strong performance in
Other revenue includes activity from the BA Holidays programme, Avios revenue from points issued and from product redemptions, maintenance and handling activity. Other revenue rose 1.4 per cent, 5.6 per cent at constant currency primarily from an increase in Iberia's third party maintenance (MRO) and handling businesses. The MRO business performed more heavy maintenance in 2017 versus 2016. BA Holidays and Avios revenues also increased reflecting additional points sold to finance partners and from higher product redemptions.
Total revenue for the Group rose 1.8 per cent with increases in passenger, cargo and other revenue. At ccy, total revenue was stronger up 4.4 per cent.
Expenditure before exceptional items
On a reported basis, employee costs for the Group were up 0.2 per cent and up 4.6 per cent at ccy. On a unit basis and at ccy, employee unit costs increased 2.0 per cent with productivity gains partially offsetting performance awards and inflation on salaries.
Employee unit costs rose at
Fuel, oil and emissions costs
Total fuel costs for the year decreased 5.4 per cent, at ccy and on a unit basis fuel costs are down 9.1 per cent. Fuel benefitted from lower average fuel prices net of hedging and efficiencies from the new fleet and improved operational procedures. The foreign exchange transaction impact on fuel costs net of hedging was adverse 5.9 percentage points for the Group, reflecting the stronger US dollar primarily against the pound sterling.
Fuel, oil and emissions costs
Total supplier costs for the year increased 1.8 per cent and benefitted from 4.2 points of currency exchange. At ccy and on a unit basis, supplier costs rose 3.4 per cent. In 2017, the Group's non-ASK related businesses, such as MRO, BA Holidays and Avios grew, increasing supplier costs, in particular Handling, catering and other operating costs and Engineering and other aircraft costs with a corresponding increase in Other revenue.
By supplier cost category:
Handling, catering and other operating costs rose 6.5 per cent excluding currency. Costs increased from higher Cargo volumes and additional product purchases at BA Holidays and redemptions at Avios with a corresponding rise in revenues. The increase also reflects higher compensation fees and baggage claims related to the operational disruption at
Landing fees and en-route charges were higher by 2.0 per cent excluding currency. Costs rose from higher activity, with flying hours up 1.6 per cent and sectors flown up 1.2 per cent, partially offset by price reductions in
Engineering and other aircraft costs were up 6.1 per cent excluding currency. Increases are driven by additional third party maintenance activity at
Property, IT and other costs were up 5.2 per cent, 9.4 per cent excluding currency. The increase reflects lower capitalised IT charges reflecting the completion of internal projects, a provision related to exercising options on leased aircraft and legal settlements including a VAT audit.
Selling costs increased 11.8 per cent excluding currency. Costs rose c.4pts from the new distribution model, which increased both expenses and revenues while allowing the Group to bring more direct access to the customer. Selling costs were also higher from the increase in passenger bookings and from marketing initiatives including Iberia's 90th year anniversary.
The Group's ownership costs were up 4.1 per cent excluding currency. Depreciation costs were down due to the retirement of Iberia's Airbus A340-300s and from a number
Number of fleet
Non-fuel unit costs
At constant currency, total non-fuel unit costs increased 2.7 per cent. Adjusted for non-airline businesses (such as MRO, handling, BA Holidays) and currency, the increase was 2.1 per cent with increases at
In summary, the Group's operating profit before exceptional items for the year was €3,015 million, a €480 million improvement from last year. The Group's adjusted operating margin also improved 2.1 points to 14.4 per cent. These results reflect a good revenue performance from a better macro-economic environment with improvements in our main strategic markets, in particular
Financial performance by Brand
Operating profit before exceptionals
For the full year, Aer Lingus operating profit was €269 million, an improvement of €36 million over last year. Capacity was increased 12.1 per cent with the introduction of an additional Airbus A330 and the full year impact of Airbus A330s delivered during 2016 to support Aer Lingus' longhaul expansion.
Passenger revenues increased, although on a unit basis were down from lower yields due to the significant capacity growth, and competitive pressure. Aer Lingus' adjusted operating margin increased 1.3 points to 16.2 per cent.
Aer Lingus achieved significant cost savings through efficient growth with higher productivity and from cost initiatives. This included areas such as maintenance, selling and IT.
Passenger revenue rose for the year, with improvements in both yield and passenger load factors. Premium yields improved with strong business sector performance.
Iberia's operating profit was €376 million, up €105 million versus last year, achieving an adjusted operating margin of 9.6 per cent. Capacity for the year was up 2.2 per cent, with an increase in passenger unit revenues and improvements across most regions.
In 2017, Iberia's MRO business also increased its external revenues by approximately €90 million, while continuing to provide services to other Group companies.
On the cost side, airline non-fuel unit costs rose from an increase in provisions including VAT litigation, the accounting impact of the acquisition of the leased Airbus A340-600s and higher selling costs partially due to NDM. Employee unit costs and productivity improved through efficiency initiatives as part of Iberia's Plan de Futuro II.
* Iberia's results exclude LEVEL.
Vueling's operating profit was €188 million with an adjusted operating margin of 12.7 per cent, up 6.0 points versus last year. Through its NEXT programme Vueling has restored operational and financial performance. Capacity was up 1.5 per cent with increases in the first and fourth quarter with the aim to reduce the seasonality of its network.
Vueling's passenger unit revenue improved versus last year with lower yields but higher passenger load factors. Vueling's improvement in
Vueling's non-fuel unit cost decreased with savings in supplier unit costs from lower maintenance fees and compensa-tion costs. Employee unit costs rose from the increase in MPEs as part of its NEXT programme to improve operational resilience and from variable pay awards linked to this year's results.
Vueling's performance reflects a significant turnaround from last year both operationally and financially with stronger margins and operating profit, allowing it to return to its growth strategy.
For a full list of exceptional items, refer to note 4 of the Financial statements. Below is a summary of the significant exceptional items recorded.
The Group recognised an exceptional charge of €288 million during the year related to restructuring costs. In 2017,
The Group also made changes to the US PRMB (Post-Retirement Medical Benefits) at
The exceptional item in 2016 recorded in Fuel, oil and emissions reflects the impact of recording Aer Lingus fuel cost at the hedged price in the pre-exceptional column, rather than at spot price in the reported column.
Non-operating costs and taxation
Net non-operating costs after exceptional items were €234 million, up from €122 million last year. The increases are non-recurring in nature and are due to a:
• €97 million negative difference in profit or loss on the sale of property plant, equipment and investments, due to the sale of an Airbus A340 by
• €81 million negative swing from unrealised gains in 2016 to losses in 2017 on derivative instruments not qualifying for hedge accounting; and
• €52 million swing in net foreign exchange on the retranslation of monetary non-current assets and liabilities.
• These increases were partially offset by a €66 million reduction in net financing costs following a reduction in net debt.
The vast majority of the Group's activities are taxed in the countries of effective management of the main operations (
The Group continues to offset prior year tax losses and other tax assets against its current year taxable profit, in 2017 the Group paid corporation taxes of €237 million (2016: €318 million).
Profit after tax and Earnings per share (EPS)
Profit after tax before exceptional items was €2,243 million, up 12.7 per cent. The increase reflects a very good operating profit performance. Fully diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is one of our key performance indicators and increased by 14 per cent also benefitting from the positive impact of the share buyback programme.
Profit after tax and exceptional items was €2,021 million, up 3.5 per cent.
The Board is proposing a final dividend to shareholders of
Dividend policy statement
In determining the level of dividend in any year, the Board considers several factors, including:
• Earnings of the Group;
• On-going cash requirements and prospects of the Group and its operating companies;
• Levels of distributable reserves by operating company and efficiency of upstreaming options;
• Dividend coverage; and
• Its intention to distribute regular returns to its shareholders in the medium and long-term.
The Company received distributions from each of the four main airlines in 2017, although due to accumulated losses in certain companies they were not all recorded as distributable income. Distributions may trigger additional pension contributions if higher than pre-agreed thresholds, see note 31 of the Financial statements.
Notwithstanding these factors, the Company's distributable reserves position was strong, with €6.1 billion available at
Liquidity and capital risk management
IAG's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern, to maintain an optimal capital structure to reduce the cost of capital and to provide sustainable returns to shareholders.
The Group monitors capital using adjusted gearing, adjusted net debt to EBITDAR and liquidity. In 2017 the Group's financial headroom rose as adjusted net debt to EBITDAR decreased to 1.5 from 1.8 in 2016 with both adjusted net debt and EBITDAR improving. Adjusted net debt reduced by €400 million to €7,759 million from a stronger cash position and lower long-term borrowings, partially offset by an increase in the notional aircraft operating lease debt. EBITDAR increased €506 million versus last year reflecting the Group's profitable growth as the EBITDAR margin improved 2 points with ASKs up 2.6 per cent. Adjusted gearing of 51 per cent in 2016 was within the Group's investment grade aim, and improved by an additional 6 points to 45 per cent from higher profit after tax.
The Group's equity free cash flow (EqFCF) rose €630 million in 2017 due to the increase in EBITDAR and EBITDA before exceptional items and lower net CAPEX. Net CAPEX is acquisition and sale of PPE and intangible assets (2017: €1,184 million; 2016: €1,301 million).
In 2017, the Group CAPEX included delivery of three new aircraft, one Boeing 787-8 and two Airbus A330s. This capital expenditure has been partially offset by €287 million of proceeds from the sale and leaseback of seven new aircraft (four Airbus A321 and three Airbus A330).
In comparison, in 2016 the Group CAPEX included delivery of 11 new aircraft, two Airbus A380s, two Boeing 787-9s, four Airbus A330s, and three aircraft from the Airbus A320 family. This capital expenditure was partially offset by €1,582 million of proceeds from the sale and leaseback of 26 new aircraft (nine Airbus A321, eight Airbus A330 and nine Boeing 787-9s). The Group also received proceeds for the sale and leaseback of 12 of its owned Airbus A319s, which were divested to reduce any residual value risk. Due to the timing of aircraft deliveries in 2017, CAPEX was low and below the planning target of an average of €2,100 million per annum.
Movements in Working capital and other non-cash generated €558 million in free cash flow (2016: €235 million) primarily from the Group's growth with higher sales in advance of carriage and impacted by the timing of prepayments and tax payments.
Pension and restructuring payments reflect payments made to the British Airways APS and NAPS plans and restructuring payments made under
In 2017, the cash Dividend paid reflects the 2016 final dividend and the 2017 interim dividend.
During the year IAG carried out a share buyback programme as part of its corporate finance strategy to return cash to shareholders while reinvesting in the business and managing leverage. The programme total was €500 million and IAG acquired 74,999,449 ordinary shares, which were subsequently cancelled.
In addition to the share buyback programme, the Group generated sufficient equity free cash flow to support the recommendation of an interim and final cash dividend of €554 million for its shareholders with cash coverage of 4.0 times. The Group returned over €1 billion to shareholders in 2017.
Taking these factors into consideration, the Group's cash inflow for the year was €573 million and after net foreign exchange differences, the increase in cash net of exchange was €248 million. Each operating company holds adequate levels of cash with balances exceeding 20 per cent of revenues, and sufficient to meet obligations as they fall due.
Net debt, adjusted net debt and adjusted gearing
Net debt at
Net debt from regular financing activities decreased €795 million, with new borrowings below the current year's regular debt and lease repayments. The level of 2017 and 2016 new borrowings and finance leases reflect the timing of fleet deliveries for the Group.
Capitalised aircraft lease costs rose during the year from the full year impact of aircraft financed through operating leases delivered in 2016 such as the Boeing 787s and Airbus A330s.
Off balance sheet arrangements and capital commitments
The Group has entered into commercial leases on certain property and equipment but primarily for aircraft. Contracts cover primarily a 21 year period with total payments of €7,642 million (2016: €8,314 million); see note 23 for further details on the timing. The Group's adjusted net debt metric includes an estimation for the debt related to the aircraft operating leases ('capitalised aircraft lease costs') by taking the current year's aircraft operating lease cost multiplied by 8.
Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for amounted to €12,137 million (2016: €14,022 million) for the Group. Most of this is in US dollars and includes commitments until 2023 for 113 aircraft from the Airbus A320 family, 17 Boeing 787s, 43 Airbus A350s, and 4 Airbus A330s.
Overall, the Group maintains flexibility in its fleet plans with the ability to defer, to exercise options and to negotiate different renewal terms. IAG does not have any other off-balance sheet financing arrangements.
IAG's mission is to be the leading international airline group. This means we will:
· Win the customer through service and value across our global network;
· Deliver higher returns to our shareholders through leveraging cost and revenue opportunities across the Group;
· Attract and develop the best people in the industry;
· Provide a platform for quality international airlines, leaders in their markets, to participate in consolidation; and
· Retain the distinct cultures and brands of the individual airlines.
By accomplishing our mission, IAG will help to shape the future of the industry, set new standards of excellence and provide sustainability, security and growth.
IAG's strategic priorities are as follows:
· Strengthening a portfolio of world-class brands and operations
· Growing global leadership positions
· Enhancing the common integrated platform
Principal risks and uncertainties
During the year we have continued to embed our risk framework, which includes processes to identify, assess and manage risks. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting us, detailed on pages 27 to 32 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2016, remain relevant. In general, the Group's strategic risk was stable during the year. The Group continued to evaluate and prepare for the potential changes following the UK's decision to leave the EU. As we move into 2018, there is continued political uncertainty, upward pressure on fuel price and the ongoing risk of impact to our operations and reputation as the frequency, nature and sophistication of cyber attacks increases.
Unaudited Full year Consolidated Financial Statements
Consolidated income statement
Consolidated statement of other comprehensive income
Items in the consolidated Statement of other comprehensive income above are disclosed net of tax.
Consolidated balance sheet
Consolidated cash flow statement
Consolidated statement of changes in equity
For the year to
Consolidated statement of changes in equity
For the year to
Notes to the consolidated financial statements
For the year to
1. Background and general information
IAG shares are traded on the
2 Significant accounting policies
Basis of preparation
The consolidated financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards as endorsed by the
The Group's financial statements for the year to
The Directors have considered the business activities, the Group's principal risks and uncertainties, and the Group's financial position, including cash flows, liquidity position and available committed facilities. The Directors consider that the Group has adequate resources to remain in operation for the foreseeable future and have therefore continued to adopt the going concern basis in preparing the financial statements.
The Group financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, each made up to
Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of their acquisition, which is the date on which the Group obtains control and continue to be consolidated until the date that such control ceases. Control exists when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity.
The Group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration paid is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred and the equity interests issued by the Group. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss and net assets in subsidiaries that are not held by the Group and are presented separately within equity in the consolidated Balance sheet. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.
If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date fair value of the acquirer's previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date through the Income statement.
Goodwill is initially measured as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the fair value of non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
All intra-group account balances, including intra-group profits, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with how resource allocation decisions are made by the chief operating decision-maker. The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for resource allocation and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the IAG Management Committee.
Foreign currency translation
a Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the functional currency, being the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. In particular,
b Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency using the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary foreign currency balances are translated into the functional currency at the rates ruling at the balance sheet date. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at balance sheet exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Income statement, except where hedge accounting is applied. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities classified as non-current on the Balance sheet are recognised within 'Net currency retranslation credits/(charges)' in the Income statement. All other gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in operating profit.
c Group companies
The net assets of foreign operations are translated into euros at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Profits and losses of such operations are translated into euros at average rates of exchange during the year. The resulting exchange differences are taken directly to a separate component of equity until all or part of the interest is sold, when the relevant portion of the cumulative exchange difference is recognised in the Income statement.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment is held at cost. The Group has a policy of not revaluing property, plant and equipment. Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost less the estimated residual value on a straight-line basis, over the economic life of the asset. Residual values, where applicable, are reviewed annually against prevailing market values for equivalently aged assets and depreciation rates adjusted accordingly on a prospective basis.
a Capitalisation of interest on progress payments
Interest attributed to progress payments, and related exchange movements on foreign currency amounts, made on account of aircraft and other qualifying assets under construction are capitalised and added to the cost of the asset concerned. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Income statement in the year in which they are incurred.
All aircraft are stated at the fair value of the consideration given after taking account of manufacturers' credits. Fleet assets owned or held on finance leases are depreciated at rates calculated to write down the cost to the estimated residual value at the end of their planned operational lives (which is the shorter of their useful life or lease term) on a straight-line basis. Depreciation rates are specific to aircraft type, based on the Group's fleet plans, within overall parameters of 23 years and 5 per cent residual value for shorthaul aircraft and 25 years and 5 per cent residual value for longhaul aircraft.
Cabin interior modifications, including those required for brand changes and relaunches, are depreciated over the lower of five years and the remaining economic life of the aircraft.
Aircraft and engine spares acquired on the introduction or expansion of a fleet, as well as rotable spares purchased separately, are carried as property, plant and equipment and generally depreciated in line with the fleet to which they relate.
Major overhaul expenditure, including replacement spares and labour costs, is capitalised and amortised over the average expected life between major overhauls. All other replacement spares and other costs relating to maintenance of fleet assets (including maintenance provided under 'pay-as-you-go' contracts) are charged to the Income statement on consumption or as incurred respectively.
c Other property, plant and equipment
Provision is made for the depreciation of all property, plant and equipment. Property, with the exception of freehold land, is depreciated over its expected useful life over periods not exceeding 50 years, or in the case of leasehold properties, over the duration of the lease if shorter, on a straight-line basis. Equipment is depreciated over periods ranging from 4 to 20 years.
d Leased assets
Where assets are financed through finance leases, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment represents the aggregate of the capital elements payable during the lease term. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the appropriate proportion of lease payments made, is included in borrowings.
The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment is depreciated on the basis described in the preceding paragraphs on fleet and the interest element of lease payments made is included as an interest expense in the Income statement.
Total minimum payments, measured at inception, under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the Income statement in equal annual amounts over the period of the lease. In respect of aircraft, certain operating lease arrangements allow the Group to terminate the leases after a limited initial period, without further material financial obligations. In certain cases the Group is entitled to extend the initial lease period on predetermined terms; such leases are described as extendable operating leases.
In determining the appropriate lease classification, the substance of the transaction rather than the form is considered. Factors considered include but are not limited to the following: whether the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term; the lessee has the option to purchase the asset at the price that is sufficiently lower than the fair value on exercise date; the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset; and the present value of the minimum lease payments amounts to at least substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset.
Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and represents the excess of the consideration paid over the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquiree. Where the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquiree is in excess of the consideration paid, a gain on bargain purchase is recognised immediately in the Income statement.
For the purpose of assessing impairment, goodwill is grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash generating units). Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Brands arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Long established brands that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.
c Customer loyalty programmes
Customer loyalty programmes arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. A customer loyalty programme with an expected useful life is amortised over the expected remaining useful life. Established customer loyalty programmes that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.
d Landing rights
Landing rights acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Landing rights acquired from other airlines are capitalised at cost.
Capitalised landing rights based outside the EU are amortised on a straight-line basis over a period not exceeding 20 years. Capitalised landing rights based within the EU are not amortised, as regulations provide that these landing rights are perpetual.
e Contract based intangibles
Contract based intangibles acquired in a business combination are recognised initially at fair value at the acquisition date and amortised over the remaining life of the contract.
The cost to purchase or develop computer software that is separable from an item of related hardware is capitalised separately and amortised on a straight-line basis generally over a period not exceeding five years, with certain specific software developments amortised over a period of up to 10 years.
g Emissions allowances
Purchased emissions allowances are recognised at cost. Emissions allowances are not revalued or amortised but are tested for impairment whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Impairment of non-financial assets
Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the value by which the asset's carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less cost to sell and value-in-use. Non-financial assets other than goodwill that were subject to an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.
a Property, plant and equipment
The carrying value is reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable and the cumulative impairment losses are shown as a reduction in the carrying value of property, plant and equipment.
b Intangible assets
Intangible assets are held at cost and are either amortised on a straight-line basis over their economic life, or they are deemed to have an indefinite economic life and are not amortised. Indefinite life intangible assets are tested annually for impairment or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Investments in associates and joint ventures
An associate is an undertaking in which the Group has a long-term equity interest and over which it has the power to exercise significant influence. Where the Group cannot exercise control over an entity in which it has a shareholding greater than 51 per cent, the equity interest is treated as an associated undertaking.
A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The considerations made in determining significant influence or joint control are similar to those necessary to determine control over subsidiaries.
Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method, and initially recognised at cost. The Group's interest in the net assets of associates and joint ventures is included in Investments accounted for using the equity method in the Balance sheet and its interest in their results is included in the Income statement, below operating result. The attributable results of those companies acquired or disposed of during the year are included for the periods of ownership.
a Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative financial assets including listed and unlisted investments, excluding interests in associates and joint ventures. After initial recognition, available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in Other comprehensive income until the investment is sold or becomes impaired, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously reported in equity is recognised in the Income statement.
The fair value of quoted investments is determined by reference to bid prices at the close of business on the balance sheet date. Where there is no active market, fair value is determined using valuation techniques. Where fair value cannot be reliably estimated, assets are carried at cost.
b Other interest-bearing deposits
Other interest-bearing deposits, principally comprising funds held with banks and other financial institutions, are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
c Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities
Derivative financial instruments, comprising interest rate swap agreements, foreign exchange derivatives and fuel hedging derivatives (including options, swaps and futures) are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss arising from remeasurement depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged (as detailed below under cash flow hedges). The gains or losses related to derivatives not used as effective hedging instruments are recognised in the Income statement.
Exchange gains and losses on monetary investments are taken to the Income statement unless the item has been designated and is assessed as an effective hedging instrument. Exchange gains and losses on non-monetary investments are reflected in equity until the investment is sold when the cumulative amount recognised in equity is recognised in the Income statement.
Long-term borrowings are recorded at amortised cost, including leases which contain interest rate swaps that are closely related to the underlying financing and as such are not accounted for as an embedded derivative.
d Cash flow hedges
Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are reported in the Income statement, unless the derivative financial instrument has been designated as a hedge of a highly probable expected future cash flow. Gains and losses on derivative financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges and assessed as effective, are recorded in equity. Gains and losses recorded in equity are reflected in the Income statement when either the hedged cash flow impacts the Income statement or the hedged item is no longer expected to occur.
Certain loan repayment instalments denominated in US dollars, euros, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan are designated as cash flow hedges of highly probable future foreign currency revenues. Exchange differences arising from the translation of these loan repayment instalments are recorded in equity and subsequently reflected in the Income statement when either the future revenue impacts income or its occurrence is no longer expected to occur.
e Convertible debt
Convertible bonds are classified as compound instruments, consisting of a liability and an equity component. At the date of issue, the fair value of the liability component is estimated using the prevailing market interest rate for similar non-convertible debt, and is subsequently recorded at an amortised cost basis using the effective interest method until extinguished on conversion or maturity of the bonds, and is recognised within Interest-bearing borrowings. The difference between the proceeds of issue of the convertible bond and the fair value assigned to the liability component, representing the embedded option to convert the liability into equity of the Group, is included in Equity portion of convertible bond in Other reserves and is not subsequently remeasured.
Issue costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the convertible bonds where appropriate based on their relative carrying values at the date of issue. The portion relating to the equity component is charged directly against equity.
The interest expense on the liability component is calculated by applying the effective interest rate for similar non-convertible debt to the liability component of the instrument. The difference between this value and the interest paid is added to the carrying amount of the liability.
f Impairment of financial assets
The Group assesses at each balance sheet date whether a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. A financial asset is considered impaired if objective evidence indicates that one or more events that have occurred since the initial recognition of the asset have had a negative impact on the estimated future cash flows of that asset. In the case of equity securities classified as available-for-sale, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost is considered an indicator that the security is impaired. If any such evidence exists for available-for-sale financial assets, the cumulative gain or loss previously reported in Other comprehensive income is included in the Income statement.
An impairment loss in respect of a financial asset carried at amortised cost is calculated as the difference between its carrying value and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset's original effective interest rate.
Employee benefit plans
a Pension obligations
The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior years.
Typically defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.
The Group's net obligation in respect of defined benefit pension plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior years. The benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets are deducted. The discount rate is the yield at the balance sheet date on AA-rated corporate bonds of the appropriate currency that have durations approximating those of the Group's obligations. The calculation is performed by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the net obligation calculation results in an asset for the Group, the recognition of an asset is limited to the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan ('the asset ceiling'). The fair value of the plan assets is based on market price information and, in the case of quoted securities, is the published bid price. The fair value of insurance policies which exactly match the amount and timing of some or all benefits payable under the scheme are deemed to be the present value of the related obligations. Longevity swaps are measured at their fair value.
Current service costs are recognised within employee costs in the year in which they arise. Past service costs are recognised in the event of a plan amendment or curtailment, or when the Group recognises related restructuring costs or severance obligations. The net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset, taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability or asset during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest and other expenses related to the defined benefit plans are recognised in the Income statement. Remeasurements, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding interest) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), are recognised immediately in Other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to the Income statement in subsequent periods.
b Severance obligations
Severance obligations are recognised when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises a provision for severance payments when it is demonstrably committed to either terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without realistic possibility of withdrawal, or providing severance payments as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy.
Other employee benefits are recognised when there is deemed to be a present obligation.
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Deferred income tax is recognised on all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements, with the following exceptions:
• Where the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;
• In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries or associates, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and
• Deferred income tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured on an undiscounted basis at the tax rates that are expected to apply when the related asset is realised or liability is settled, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Income tax is charged or credited directly to equity if it relates to items that are credited or charged to equity. Otherwise income tax is recognised in the Income statement.
Inventories, including aircraft expendables, are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Such cost is determined by the weighted average cost method. Inventories include mainly aircraft spare parts, repairable aircraft engine parts and fuel.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand and deposits with any qualifying financial institution repayable on demand or maturing within three months of the date of acquisition and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.
The Group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based payment plans, under which the Group awards equity instruments of the Group for services rendered by employees. The fair value of the share-based payment plans is measured at the date of grant using a valuation model provided by external specialists. The resulting cost, as adjusted for the expected and actual level of vesting of the plan, is charged to the Income statement over the period in which the options vest. At each balance sheet date before vesting, the cumulative expense is calculated, representing the extent to which the vesting period has expired and management's best estimate of the achievement or otherwise of non-market conditions, and accordingly the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The movement in the cumulative expense since the previous balance sheet date is recognised in the Income statement with a corresponding entry in equity.
Provisions are made when an obligation exists for a present liability in respect of a past event and where the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.
Employee leaving indemnities and other employee provisions are recorded for flight crew who, meeting certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve or of taking early retirement. The Group is obligated to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The calculation is performed by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method.
Other employee related provisions are recognised for direct expenditures of business reorganisation such as severance payments (restructuring provisions) where plans are sufficiently detailed and well advanced, and where appropriate communication to those affected has been undertaken at the balance sheet date.
If the effect is material, expected future cash flows are discounted using a rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the provision. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to unwinding the discount is recognised as a finance cost.
Passenger and cargo revenue is recognised when the transportation service has been provided. Passenger tickets net of discounts are recorded as deferred revenue on ticket sales in current liabilities until the customer has flown. Unused tickets are recognised as revenue using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and statistical analysis of historical trends.
Other revenue including maintenance; handling; hotel and holiday and commissions is recognised at the time the service is provided in accordance with the invoice or contract.
Customer loyalty programmes
The Group operates five loyalty programmes:
In addition, Avios points are sold to commercial partners to use in loyalty activity. The fair value of the Avios points sold is deferred and recognised as revenue on redemption of the Avios points by the participants to whom the Avios points are issued. The difference between the consideration received and the amount deferred is recognised on the issuance of the points. The cost of the redemption of the Avios points is recognised when the Avios points are redeemed.
The Group estimates the fair value of Avios points by reference to the fair value of the awards for which they could be redeemed and is reduced to take into account the proportion of award credits that are not expected to be redeemed based on the results of statistical modelling. The fair value of the Avios point reflects the fair value of the awards for which points can be redeemed.
Exceptional items are those that in management's view need to be separately disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence. The exceptional items recorded in the Income statement include items such as significant restructuring; the impact of business combination transactions that do not contribute to the ongoing results of the Group; and the impact of the sale, disposal or impairment of an investment in a business.
Business combination transactions include cash items such as the costs incurred to effect the transaction and non-cash items such as accounting gains or losses recognised through the Income statement, such as bargain purchase gains and step acquisition losses.
Critical accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions
The preparation of financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. These judgements, estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results in the future may differ from judgements and estimates upon which financial information has been prepared. These underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if these are also affected.
The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are as follows.
a Employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities, other employee related restructuring provisions
The cost of employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions is determined using actuarial valuations. Actuarial valuations involve making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these schemes, such assumptions are subject to significant uncertainty. The assumptions relating to these schemes are disclosed in notes 24 and 31. The Group determines the assumptions to be adopted in discussion with qualified actuaries. In respect of future pension increases in the Airways Pension Scheme, following legal proceedings the Group has appealed the initial judgement that the Trustee has the power to award discretionary increases to pensions in payment in the 2013/14 scheme year. Further information on these proceedings is disclosed in note 32. The sensitivity to changes in pension increase assumptions is disclosed in note 31.
Restructuring provisions are estimates of future obligations. The Group exercises judgement in determining the expected direct expenditures of reorganisation based on plans which are sufficiently detailed and advanced.
b Revenue recognition
Passenger revenue is recognised when the transportation is provided. Ticket sales that are not expected to be used ('unused tickets') are recognised as revenue using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and historical trends.
In respect of customer loyalty programmes the fair value attributed to awarded points is deferred as a liability and is recognised as revenue on redemption of the points and provision of service to the participants to whom the points are issued. The fair value of the award credits is estimated by reference to the fair value of the awards for which the points could be redeemed and is reduced to take into account the proportion of award credits that are not expected to be redeemed by customers. The Group determines the assumptions to be adopted in respect of the number of points not expected to be redeemed through the use of statistical modelling and historical trends and the mix and fair value of the award credits. A one point change in the assumption on the percentage of points not expected to be redeemed will increase or reduce the amount recognised as revenue in the year by less than €10 million.
c Income taxes
The Group is subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Estimates are required when determining the worldwide provision for income taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. The Group recognises liabilities for anticipated tax audit assessments. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will impact the current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities in the period in which such determination is made.
The Group recognises deferred income tax assets only to the extent that it is probable that the taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised. Management consider the operating performance in the current year and the future projections of performance laid out in the approved business plan in order to assess the probability of recoverability. The Business plan relies on the use of assumptions, estimates and judgements in respect of future performance and economics. The deferred income tax asset recognised at
d Impairment of non-financial assets
The Group assesses whether there are any indicators of impairment for all non-financial assets at each reporting date. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite economic lives are tested for impairment annually and at other times when such indicators exist. The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations. These calculations require the use of estimates and assumptions as disclosed in note 15.
Other non-financial assets are tested for impairment when there are indicators that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable.
e Residual values and useful lives of assets
The Group estimates useful lives and residual values of property, plant and equipment, including fleet assets based on network plans and recoverable values. Useful lives and residual values are reassessed annually, taking into consideration the latest fleet plans and other business plan information. Information on the net book values of property, plant and equipment and related depreciation charges is disclosed in note 12.
Engineering and other aircraft costs
The Group has a number of contracts with service providers to replace or repair engine parts and other maintenance checks. These agreements are complex and the Group exercises judgement in determining the assumptions used to match the consumption of replacement spares and other costs associated with fleet maintenance with the appropriate income statement charge. Aircraft maintenance obligations are based on aircraft utilisation, expected maintenance intervals, future maintenance costs and the aircraft's condition. At
Changes in accounting policy and disclosures
a New and amended standards adopted by the Group
The Group has adopted IAS 7 (Amendment) 'Statement of cash flows' for the first time in the year to
Other amendments adopted for the first time in the year to
b New standards, amendments and interpretations not yet effective
The IASB and IFRIC issued the following standards, amendments and interpretations with an effective date after the year end of these financial statements which management believe could impact the Group in future periods. Unless otherwise stated, the Group plans to adopt the following standards, interpretations and amendments on the date they become mandatory:
IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers'; effective for periods beginning on or after
The Group has identified the following changes to revenue recognition on adoption of the standard:
• Passenger revenue - revenue associated with ancillary services that is currently recognised when paid, such as administration fees, will be deferred to align with the recognition of revenue associated with the related travel.
• Cargo revenue - interline cargo revenue will be presented gross rather than net of related costs as IAG is considered to be principal rather than agent in these transactions.
• Other revenue - loyalty revenue associated with the redemption of Avios points with third parties will be presented net of the related costs as IAG is considered to be agent rather than principal in these transactions. In addition, revenue associated with maintenance activities and holiday revenue with performance obligations that are fulfilled over time, will be deferred (with the related costs) and recognised over the performance obligation period.
The Group expects to apply the standard on a fully retrospective basis. On adoption of the standard, the adjustment to retained earnings at
IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments'; effective for periods beginning on or after
Financial assets will be classified as at 'amortised cost', 'fair value through profit and loss', or 'fair value through other comprehensive income'. The Group has reviewed its existing classifications and confirmed that most financial assets will continue to be recognised at amortised cost. Equity investments, previously classified as available-for-sale will be classified as financial assets at fair value through Other comprehensive income, with no recycling of gains and losses.
The new impairment model will be applied to trade receivables and other financial assets. Any adjustment to existing provisions on transition will not be material.
The Group will continue to undertake hedging activity in line with its financial risk management objectives and policies. The following changes to hedge accounting will be adopted:
• Non-financial components of price risk may be designated in a hedge relationship;
• Movements in the time value of options will be classified as cost of hedging; and
• Hedge effectiveness assessments will be aligned to the requirements of IFRS 9.
The amounts recognised in the Income statement in respect of derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting will reduce.
On adoption of the standard, to reflect the change in accounting for the time value of options, there will be a reclassification of accumulated post-tax gains of €38 million from retained earnings to unrealised gains and losses in Other reserves at
IFRS 16 'Leases'; effective from
The Group is currently assessing the impact of the new standard and expects its implementation to have a significant impact on the financial statements from the date of adoption. The main changes will be as follows:
1. The amounts recognised as assets and liabilities on adoption of IFRS 16 will be subject to a number of judgements, estimates and assumptions. This includes:
a. Judgements when reviewing current agreements (such as agreements for terminal capacity) to determine whether they contain leases as defined under the new standard.
b. Assumptions used to calculate the discount rate to apply to lease obligations, which is likely to be based on the incremental borrowing rate for the estimated lease term.
c. Estimation of the lease term, including options to extend the lease where the Group is reasonably certain to extend.
2. Interest-bearing borrowings and non-current assets will increase on implementation of the standard as obligations to make future payments under leases currently classified as operating leases will be recognised on the Balance sheet, along with the related 'right-of-use' asset. It is expected that lease obligations, which are predominantly US dollar denominated, will be recognised at the exchange rate ruling on the date of adoption and the appropriate incremental borrowing rate at that date, with the related 'right-of-use' asset recognised at the exchange rate ruling at the commencement of the lease.
3. There will be a reduction in expenditure on operations and an increase in finance costs as operating lease costs are replaced with depreciation and lease interest expense.
4. The Group's Alternative Performance Measures will also be impacted. These comprise Operating profit and lease adjusted operating margin; Adjusted earnings per share; EBITDAR; Return on
For future reporting periods after adoption, foreign exchange movements on lease obligations, which are predominantly denominated in US dollars, will be remeasured at each balance sheet date, however the right-of-use asset will be recognised at the historic exchange rate. This will create volatility in the Income statement.
IFRIC Interpretation 23 'Uncertainty over tax treatments' (not yet endorsed by the EU); effective for periods beginning on or after
There are no other standards, amendments or interpretations in issue but not yet adopted that the Directors anticipate will have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.
The Group has not early adopted any standard, amendment or interpretation that has been issued but is not yet effective.
3 Segment information
a Business segments
The chief operating decision‑maker is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, and has been identified as the IAG Management Committee (IAG MC).
The Group has a number of entities which are managed as individual operating companies including airline and platform functions. Each airline operates its network operations as a single business unit and the IAG MC assesses performance based on measures including operating profit, and makes resource allocation decisions for the airlines based on network profitability, primarily by reference to the passenger markets in which the companies operate. The objective in making resource allocation decisions is to optimise consolidated financial results.
The Group has determined its operating segments based on the way that it treats its businesses and the manner in which resource allocation decisions are made.
The platform functions of the business primarily support the airline operations. These activities are not considered to be reportable operating segments as they either earn revenues incidental to the activities of the Group and resource allocation decisions are made based on the passenger business, or are not reviewed by the IAG MC and are included within
For the year to
Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,031 million and total liabilities of €2,744 million.
For the year to
Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,327 million and total liabilities of €3,725 million.
b Geographical analysis
Revenue by area of original sale
Assets by area
4 Exceptional items
1 Restructuring costs
In the year to
In the year to
2 Employee costs
During the year to
3 Pre-acquisition cash flow hedge impact
Under IFRS 3 Business combinations, gains or losses on cash flow hedges acquired should not be recycled to the income statement but recognised in equity. Following the acquisition of Aer Lingus, IAG continued to unwind the cash flow fuel hedges acquired in reported fuel expense. For the year to
5 Expenses by nature
Operating profit is arrived at after charging
Depreciation, amortisation and impairment of non-current assets:
Operating leases costs:
Cost of inventories:
6 Auditors' remuneration
The fees for audit and non-audit services provided by the auditor of the Group's consolidated financial statements and of certain individual financial statements of the consolidated companies, Ernst & Young S.L., and by companies belonging to Ernst & Young's network, were as follows:
The audit fees payable are approved by the Audit and Compliance Committee and have been reviewed in the context of other companies for cost effectiveness. A description of the work of the Audit and Compliance Committee is set out in the Report of the Audit and Compliance Committee and includes an explanation of how objectivity and independence is safeguarded when non-audit services are provided.
7 Employee costs and numbers
1 Other employee costs include allowances and accommodation for crew.
The number of employees during the year and at
8 Finance costs and income
a Finance costs
b Finance income
c Net financing (charge)/credit relating to pensions
a Tax charges
Tax (charge)/credit in the Income statement, Other comprehensive income and Statement of changes in equity:
For the year to
Current tax in Other comprehensive income all relates to employee retirement benefit plans and current tax in the Statement of changes in equity all relates to share-based payments.
For the year to
Current tax in Other comprehensive income all relates to employee retirement benefit plans and current tax in the Statement of changes in equity all relates to share-based payment schemes (€5 million) and finance costs (€5 million).
Current tax asset/(liability)
Current tax asset is €258 million (2016: €228 million) and current tax liability is €179 million (2016: €101 million).
Deferred tax asset/(liability)
The deferred tax asset is €521 million (2016: €526 million) and all arises in
b Deferred tax
For the year to
Within tax in Other comprehensive income is a tax charge of €24 million (2016: €187 million) that may be reclassified subsequently to the Income statement and a tax charge of €283 million (2016: tax credit of €345 million) that may not. Within tax in Other comprehensive income arising from tax rate changes is a tax credit of €1 million (2016: charge of €12 million) that may be reclassified subsequently to the Income statement and a tax credit of €9 million (2016: charge of €28 million) that may not.
For the year to
Within tax in Other comprehensive income is a tax charge of €187 million that may be reclassified subsequently to the Income statement and a tax credit of €345 million that may not. Within tax in Other comprehensive income arising from tax rate changes is a tax charge of €12 million that may be reclassified subsequently to the Income statement and a tax charge of €28 million that may not.
Detailed deferred tax movement in respect of current year in the Income statement, Other comprehensive income and Statement of changes in equity
For the year to
For the year to
c Reconciliation of the total tax charge/(credit) in the Income statement
The tax charge is calculated at the domestic rates applicable to proﬁts or losses in the main countries of operation. The tax charge on the profit for the year to
The differences are explained below:
1 The expected tax charge is arrived at by aggregating the expected tax charges arising in each company in the Group. It changes each year as tax rates and profit mix change.
d Other taxes
The Group also contributed tax and related revenues through payment of transaction and payroll related taxes and charges. A breakdown of these other taxes and charges paid during the year is as follows:
The reduction in
e Factors that may affect future tax charges
Unrecognised temporary differences
None of the unrecognised temporary differences have an expiry date.
Unrecognised temporary differences - investment in subsidiaries and associates
No deferred tax liability has been recognised in respect of €2,044 million (2016: €170 million) of temporary differences relating to subsidiaries and associates. The Group either controls the reversal of these temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future or no tax consequences would arise from their reversal.
The main rate of corporation tax applicable from
The Group files income tax returns in many jurisdictions throughout the world. Tax returns contain matters that are subject to potentially differing interpretations of tax laws and regulations, which may give rise to queries from and disputes with tax authorities. The resolution of these queries and disputes can take several years but the Group does not currently expect any material impact on the Group's financial position or results of operations to arise from such resolution. The extent to which there are open queries and disputes depends upon the jurisdiction and the issue.
10 Earnings per share
1 Includes 34 million as the weighted average impact for 74,999,449 treasury shares purchased in the share buyback programme (note 27).
The calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is included in the Alternative performance measures section.
The proposed dividend would be distributed from net profit for the year to
Proposed dividends on ordinary shares are subject to approval at the Annual General Meeting and subject to approval are recognised as a liability on that date.
12 Property, plant and equipment
The net book value of property comprises:
1 Short leasehold improvements relate to leasehold interests with duration of less than 50 years.
13 Capital expenditure commitments
Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for but not provided for in the accounts amounts to €12,137 million (
The outstanding commitments include €12,056 million for the acquisition of 92 Airbus A320s (from 2018 to 2022), 21 Airbus A321s (from 2018 to 2020), 4 Airbus A330s (in 2018), 43 Airbus A350s (from 2018 to 2022) and 17 Boeing 787s (from 2018 to 2023).
14 Non-current assets held for sale
Assets held for sale with a net book value of €38 million were disposed of during the year to
15 Intangible assets and impairment review
a Intangible assets
1 The net book value includes non-EU based landing rights of €106 million (2016: €113 million) that have a definite life. The remaining life of these landing rights is 18 years.
2 Other intangible assets consist primarily of software with a net book value of €473 million (2016: €474 million), and also include purchased emissions allowances.
3 The impairment charge of €14 million in 2016 relates to landing rights associated with
b Impairment review
The carrying amounts of intangible assets with indefinite life and goodwill allocated to cash generating units (CGUs) of the Group are:
Basis for calculating recoverable amount
The recoverable amounts of CGUs have been measured based on their value-in-use.
Value-in-use is calculated using a discounted cash flow model, with the royalty methodology used for brands. Cash flow projections are based on the Business plan approved by the Board covering a five year period. Cash flows extrapolated beyond the five year period are projected to increase based on long-term growth rates. Cash flow projections are discounted using the CGU's pre-tax discount rate.
Annually the Group prepares and the Board approves five year business plans. Business plans were approved in the fourth quarter of the year. The business plan cash flows used in the value-in-use calculations reflect all restructuring of the business that has been approved by the Board and which can be executed by Management under existing agreements.
For each of the CGUs the key assumptions used in the value-in-use calculations are as follows:
1 Lease adjusted operating margin and ASK growth per annum assumptions are not applicable for the Avios loyalty reward business, which conducts business with partners both within and outside IAG.
Lease adjusted operating margin is the average annual operating result, adjusted for aircraft operating lease costs, as a percentage of revenue over the five year Business plan to 2022. It is presented as a percentage point range and is based on past performance, Management's expectation of the market development and incorporating risks into the cash flow estimates.
ASK growth is the average annual increase over the Business plan, based on planned network growth and taking into account Management's expectation of the market.
The long-term growth rate is calculated for each CGU based on the forecasted weighted average exposure in each primary market using gross domestic product (GDP) (source: Oxford Economics). The airline's network plans are reviewed annually as part of the Business plan and reflect Management's plans in response to specific market risk or opportunity.
Pre-tax discount rates represent the current market assessment of the risks specific to each CGU, taking into consideration the time value of money and underlying risks of its primary market. The discount rate calculation is based on the circumstances of the airline industry, the Group and the CGU. It is derived from the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The WACC takes into consideration both debt and equity available to airlines. The cost of equity is derived from the expected return on investment by airline investors and the cost of debt is broadly based on the Group's interest-bearing borrowings. CGU specific risk is incorporated by applying individual beta factors which are evaluated annually based on available market data. The pre-tax discount rate reflects the timing of future tax flows.
Summary of results
In 2017, Management reviewed the recoverable amount of each of its CGUs and concluded the recoverable amounts exceeded the carrying values. Sensitivities have been considered for each CGU. Reducing long-term growth rates to zero, increasing pre-tax discount rates by 4 points, and increasing the fuel price by 40 per cent, does not result in any impairment.
a Investments in subsidiaries
The Group's principal subsidiaries at
All subsidiary undertakings are included in the consolidation. There have been no significant changes in ownership interests of subsidiaries during the year.
The total non-controlling interest at
b Investments accounted for using the equity method
The share of assets, liabilities, revenue and profit of the Group's associates and joint ventures, which are included in the Group's financial statements, are as follows:
The detail of the movement in Investments accounted for using the equity method is shown as follows:
17 Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets include the following:
The net gain relating to available-for-sale financial assets was €7 million (2016: €4 million).
18 Trade and other receivables
Movements in the provision for doubtful trade receivables were as follows:
The ageing analysis of net trade receivables is as follows:
Trade receivables are generally non-interest-bearing and on 30 days terms (2016: 30 days).
19 Cash, cash equivalents and other current interest-bearing deposits
Cash at bank is primarily held in AAA money market funds and bank deposits. Short-term deposits are made for periods up to three months depending on the cash requirements of the Group and earn interest based on the floating deposit rates.
Other current interest-bearing deposits are made for periods in excess of three months with maturity typically within 12 months and earn interest based on the market rates available at the time the deposit was made.
a Net debt
Movements in net debt were as follows:
20 Trade and other payables
Average payment days to suppliers -
21 Other long-term liabilities
22 Long-term borrowings
Banks and other loans are repayable up to the year 2027. Bank and other loans of the Group amounting to €539 million (2016: €613 million) are secured on aircraft. Finance leases are all secured on aircraft or property, plant and equipment.
c Bank and other loans
Bank and other loans comprise the following:
1 Two senior unsecured bonds convertible into ordinary shares of IAG were issued by the Group in
2 Floating rate euro mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 0.17 and 1.17 per cent. The loans are repayable between 2024 and 2027.
3 €200 million fixed rate unsecured bonds between 2.5 to 3.75 per cent coupon repayable between 2018 and 2027.
4 Floating rate euro syndicate loan secured on investments is secured on specific assets of the Group and bears interest of 1.375 per cent plus 3 month EURIBOR. The loan is repayable in 2020.
5 Fixed rate US dollar mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 3.81 and 4.76 per cent. The loans are repayable between 2021 and 2026.
6 Fixed rate Chinese yuan mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 5.20 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2022.
7 Fixed rate unsecured US dollar loans bearing interest between 1.98 to 2.37 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2023.
8 Floating rate pound sterling mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 1.07 per cent. The loans are repayable between 2018 and 2019.
9 Fixed rate unsecured euro loans with the Spanish State (
10 Floating rate US dollar mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 3.66 per cent. The loans were repaid in 2017.
Total loans and finance leases
e Obligations under finance leases
The Group uses finance leases principally to acquire aircraft. These leases have both renewal and purchase options, at the option of the Group. Future minimum finance lease payments under finance leases are as follows:
23 Operating lease commitments
The Group has entered into commercial leases on certain properties, equipment and aircraft. These leases have durations ranging from less than one year to 14 years for aircraft and less than one year to 21 years for property, plant and equipment. One ground lease has a remaining lease of 128 years. Certain leases contain options for renewal.
The aggregate payments, for which there are commitments under operating leases, fall due as follows:
Subleases entered into by the Group relate to surplus rental properties and aircraft assets held under non-cancellable leases to third parties. These leases have remaining terms of one to six years and the assets are surplus to the Group's requirements. Future minimum rentals receivable under non-cancellable operating leases are €8 million (2016: €12 million) with €7 million (2016: €7 million) falling within one year, €1 million (2016: €5 million) between one and five years and nil (2016: nil) over five years.
24 Provision for liabilities and charges
Restoration and handback provisions
The provision for restoration and handback costs is maintained to meet the contractual maintenance and return conditions on aircraft held under operating leases. The provision also includes an amount relating to leased land and buildings where restoration costs are contractually required at the end of the lease. Where such costs arise as a result of capital expenditure on the leased asset, the restoration costs are capitalised. The provision is a long-term provision, typically covering the leased asset term which is up to 14 years for aircraft.
The Group recognises a provision for targeted voluntary severance schemes. Part of this provision relates to a collective redundancy programme, which provides for payments to affected employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The amount provided for has been determined by an actuarial valuation made by independent actuaries, and was based on the same assumptions as those made to determine the provisions for obligations to flight crew below, with the exception of the discount rate, which in this case was 0.08 per cent. The payments related to this provision will continue in the next ten years.
During the year the Group recognised a provision of €108 million in relation to the restructuring plans at
In 2017, a provision of €180 million was also recognised at
Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions
This provision includes employees leaving indemnities relating to staff under various contractual arrangements.
The Group recognises a provision relating to flight crew who having met certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement. The Group is required to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age, and an initial provision was recognised based on an actuarial valuation. The provision was reviewed at
Legal claims provisions
Legal claims provisions includes:
• Amounts for multi-party claims from groups or employees on a number of matters related to its operations, including claims for additional holiday pay and for age discrimination;
• Provisions related to tax assessment; and
• Amounts related to investigations by a number of competition authorities in connection with alleged anti-competitive activity concerning the Group's passenger and cargo businesses. The provision includes the payment of €104 million for the reissued fine in
Other provisions includes:
• Amounts for passengers whose flights were significantly delayed and are entitled to receive compensation. This provision is largely a current provision and is expected to have amounts both utilised and provided for each year. This provision has been reassessed based on the historic level of claims;
• During 2017 a €65 million provision was recognised on additional compensation fees and baggage claims related to operational disruption at
• A provision for the Emissions Trading Scheme that represents the excess of CO2 emitted on flights within the EU in excess of the EU Emission Allowances granted; and
• A provision related to unfavourable fleet contracts.
25 Financial risk management objectives and policies
The Group is exposed to a variety of financial risks: market risk (including fuel price risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk), counterparty risk, liquidity risk and capital risk. Further information on the Group's financial instruments exposed to these risks is included in note 26. The Board approves the key strategic principles and the risk appetite, defining the amount of risk that the Group is prepared to retain. The Group's Financial Risk Management programme focuses on the unpredictability of financial markets and seeks to minimise the risk of incremental costs arising from adverse financial market movements.
Financial risks are managed under the overall oversight of the Group Treasury department. Fuel price fluctuations, euro-US dollar and sterling-US dollar exchange rate volatility represents the largest financial risks facing the Group. Other currencies as well as interest rate risk are also the subject of the Financial Risk Management programme. The IAG Management Committee approves the Group hedging profile and delegates to the operating company Risk Committee to agree on the degree of flexibility in applying the levels as defined by the IAG Management Committee. Each operating company Risk Committee meets at least once a month to review and approve a mandate to place hedging cover in the market including the instruments to be used.
The Group Treasury department provides a quarterly report on the hedging position to the IAG Management Committee and the Audit and Compliance Committee. The Board reviews the strategy and risk appetite once a year.
a Fuel price risk
The Group is exposed to fuel price risk. The Group's fuel price risk management strategy aims to provide protection against sudden and significant increases in fuel prices while ensuring that the Group is not competitively disadvantaged in the event of a substantial fall in the price. The current Group strategy is to hedge a proportion of fuel consumption for the next twelve quarters, within certain defined limits.
Within the strategy, the Financial Risk Management programme allows for the use of a number of derivative instruments available on over the counter (OTC) markets with approved counterparties.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of financial instruments to a reasonable possible change in fuel prices, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:
b Foreign currency risk
The Group presents its consolidated financial statements in euros, has functional entities in euro and pound sterling, and conducts business in a number of different countries. Consequently the Group is exposed to currency risk on revenue, purchases and borrowings that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. The currencies in which these transactions are denominated are primarily euro, US dollar and pound sterling. The Group generates a surplus in most currencies in which it does business. The US dollar is an exception as fuel purchases, maintenance expenses and debt repayments denominated in US dollars typically create a deficit.
The Group has a number of strategies to hedge foreign currency risk. The operational US dollar short position is subject to the same governance structure as the fuel hedging strategy set out above. The current Group strategy, as approved by the IAG Management Committee, is to hedge a proportion of up to three years of US dollar exposure, within certain defined limits.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of financial instruments to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, sterling, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan exchange rates, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:
c Interest rate risk
The Group is exposed to changes in interest rates on floating rate debt and on cash deposits.
Interest rate risk on floating rate debt is managed through interest rate swaps, floating to fixed cross currency swaps and interest rate collars. After taking into account the impact of these derivatives, 75 per cent of the Group's borrowings were at fixed rates and 25 per cent were at floating rates.
All cash deposits are generally on tenors less than one year. The interest rate is predominantly fixed for the tenor of the deposit.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of financial instruments to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, euro and sterling interest rates, on result before tax and equity:
d Counterparty risk
The Group is exposed to counterparty risk to the extent of non-performance by its counterparties in respect of financial assets receivable. The Group has policies and procedures in place to minimise the risk by placing credit limits on each counterparty. These policies and procedures are coordinated through the Group Treasury department. The Risk Committee also reviews the application of the policies and procedures by
Each operating company invests surplus cash in interest-bearing accounts, time deposits, and money market funds, choosing instruments with appropriate maturities or liquidity to provide sufficient headroom. At the reporting date the operating companies held money market funds and other liquid assets that are expected to readily generate cash inflows for managing liquidity risk.
The financial assets recognised in the financial statements, net of impairment losses, represent the Group's maximum exposure to credit risk, without taking account of any guarantees in place or other credit enhancements.
e Liquidity risk
Liquidity risk management includes maintaining sufficient cash and interest-bearing deposits, the availability of funding from an adequate amount of credit facilities and the ability to close out market positions. Due to the volatile nature of the underlying business, Group treasury maintains flexibility in funding by using committed credit lines.
The Group held undrawn general and committed aircraft financing facilities:
The following table categorises the Group's (outflows) and inflows in respect of financial liabilities and derivative financial instruments into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at
f Offsetting financial assets and liabilities
The following financial assets and liabilities are subject to offsetting, enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements.
The Group enters into derivative transactions under ISDA (
1 The gross value of financial instruments and the financial instruments that are offset under netting agreements have been amended from the figures presented in 2016, with no impact on the Balance sheet.
g Capital risk management
The Group's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern to maintain an optimal capital structure, to reduce the cost of capital and to provide returns to shareholders.
The Group monitors capital on the basis of the adjusted gearing ratio. For the year to
Further detail on liquidity and capital resources and capital risk management is disclosed in the financial review.
26 Financial instruments
a Financial assets and liabilities by category
The detail of the Group's ﬁnancial instruments at
b Fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities
The fair values of the Group's financial instruments are disclosed in hierarchy levels depending on the nature of the inputs used in determining the fair values as follows:
Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. A market is regarded as active if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service, or regulatory agency, and those prices present actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm's length basis;
Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined by valuation techniques. These valuation techniques maximise the use of observable market data where it is available and rely as little as possible on entity specific estimates; and
Level 3: Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data.
The fair value of cash and cash equivalents, other current interest-bearing deposits, trade receivables, other current assets and trade and other payables approximate their carrying value largely due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
The following methods and assumptions were used by the Group in estimating its fair value disclosures for financial instruments:
Level 1: The fair value of listed asset investments classified as available-for-sale and listed interest-bearing borrowings is based on market value at the balance sheet date.
Level 2: The fair value of derivatives and other interest-bearing borrowings is determined as follows:
• Forward currency transactions and over-the-counter fuel derivatives are measured at the market value of instruments with similar terms and conditions at the balance sheet date using forward pricing models. Counterparty and own credit risk is deemed to be not significant.
• The fair value of the Group's interest-bearing borrowings including leases is determined by discounting the remaining contractual cash flows at the relevant market interest rates at the balance sheet date.
Level 3: Unlisted investments are predominantly measured at historic cost less accumulated impairment losses.
The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities, excluding investments accounted for under the equity method, at
1 Current portion of derivative financial assets is €405 million.
2 Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €111 million.
The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities, excluding investments accounted for under the equity method, at
1 Current portion of derivative financial assets is €329 million.
2 Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €88 million.
There have been no transfers between levels of fair value hierarchy during the year.
The financial instruments listed in the previous table are measured at fair value for reporting purposes with the exception of the interest-bearing borrowings.
c Level 3 financial assets reconciliation
The following table summarises key movements in Level 3 financial assets:
The fair value of Level 3 financial assets cannot be measured reliably; as such these assets are stated at historic cost less accumulated impairment losses with the exception of the Group's investment in
Cash flow hedges
• Future loan repayment instalments in foreign currency, hedging foreign exchange risk on revenue cash inflows;
• Forward crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts, hedging price risk on fuel cash outflows; and
• Foreign exchange contracts, hedging foreign exchange risk on revenue cash inflows and certain operational payments.
To the extent that the hedges were assessed as highly effective, a summary of the amounts included in equity, the notional principal amounts and the years to which the related cash flows are expected to occur are summarised below:
The notional values of the significant financial instruments used as cash flow hedges were as follows:
The ineffective portion recognised in the Income statement during year on cash flow hedges was a gain of €7 million (2016: gain of €36 million).
The Group has no significant fair value hedges at
27 Share capital and share premium
1 Offset of prior years' losses that are included in the Company's separate balance sheet, against share premium.
During the year IAG carried out a share buyback programme as part of its corporate finance strategy to return cash to shareholders while reinvesting in the business and managing leverage. The programme total was €500 million and it was completed in
28 Treasury shares
IAG has authority to acquire its own shares, subject to specific conditions.
The treasury shares balance consists of shares held directly by the Group. During the year to
29 Share-based payments
The Group operates share-based payment schemes as part of the total remuneration package provided to employees. These schemes comprise both share option schemes where employees acquire shares at nil-cost and share award plans whereby shares are issued to employees at no cost, subject to the achievement by the Group of specified performance targets.
a IAG Performance Share Plan
The IAG Performance Share Plan (PSP) is granted to senior executives and managers of the Group who are most directly involved in shaping and delivering business success over the medium to long term. In 2014, a conditional award of shares was subject to the achievement of a variety of performance conditions, which vest after three years subject to the employee remaining employed by the Group. From 2015, the awards were made as nil-cost options, and also had a two-year additional holding period after the end of the performance period, before vesting takes place. The award made in 2014 vests based 50 per cent on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, and 50 per cent based on achievement of earnings per share targets. The awards made from 2015 will vest based one-third on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, one-third based on achievement of earnings per share targets, and one-third based on achievement of Return on
b IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan
The IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan (IADP) is granted to qualifying employees based on performance and service tests. It will be awarded when an incentive award is triggered subject to the employee remaining in employment with the Group for three years after the grant date. The relevant population will receive 50 per cent of their incentive award up front in cash, and the remaining 50 per cent in shares after three years through the IADP.
c Share-based payment schemes summary
The fair value of equity-settled share-based payment plans determined using the
Volatility was calculated with reference to the Group's weekly pound sterling share price volatility. The expected volatility reflects the assumption that the historical volatility is indicative of future trends, which may not necessarily be the actual outcome. The fair value of the PSP also takes into account a market condition of TSR as compared to strategic competitors. No other features of share-based payment plans granted were incorporated into the measurement of fair value.
The Group recognised a share-based payment charge of €33 million for the year to
30 Other reserves and non-controlling interests
For the year to
For the year to
1 The unrealised gains and losses reserve records fair value changes on available-for-sale investments and the portion of the gain or loss on a hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge that is determined to be an effective hedge.
2 The currency translation reserve records exchange differences arising from the translation of the financial statements of non-euro functional currency subsidiaries and investments accounted for under the equity method into the Group's reporting currency of euros. The movement through this reserve is affected by the fluctuations in the pound sterling to euro foreign exchange translation rate.
3 The equity portion of convertible bond reserve represents the equity portion of convertible bonds issued. At
4 The merger reserve originated from the merger transaction between
5 The redeemed capital reserve represents the nominal value of the decrease in share capital, relating to cancelled shares.
6 Non-controlling interests largely comprise €300 million of 6.75 per cent fixed coupon euro perpetual preferred securities issued by
31 Employee benefit obligations
The Group operates a variety of post-employment benefit arrangements, covering both defined contribution and defined benefit schemes. The Group also has a scheme for flight crew who meet certain conditions and therefore have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement (note 24).
Defined contribution schemes
The Group operates a number of defined contribution schemes for its employees.
Costs recognised in respect of defined contribution pension plans in
Defined benefit schemes
i APS and NAPS
The principal funded defined benefit pension schemes within the Group are the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) and the New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS), both of which are in the
The benefits provided under APS are based on final average pensionable pay and, for the majority of members, are subject to inflationary increases in payment in line with the Government's Pension Increase (Review) Orders (PIRO), which are based on CPI. The benefits provided under NAPS are based on final average pensionable pay reduced by an amount (the abatement) not exceeding one and a half times the Government's lower earnings limit, with pension increases also based on PIRO, subject to a cap of a maximum of five per cent in any given year.
As reported in previous years, the Trustee of APS has proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI inflation for pensions in payment for the year to
APS and NAPS are governed by separate Trustee Boards. Although APS and NAPS have separate Trustee Boards, much of the business of the two schemes is common. Most main Board and committee meetings are held in tandem although each Trustee Board reaches its decisions independently. There are three sub committees which are separately responsible for the governance, operation and investments of each scheme.
Deficit payment plans are agreed with the Trustee of each scheme every three years based on the actuarial valuation (triennial valuation) rather than the IAS 19 accounting valuation. The latest deficit recovery plan was agreed on the
ii Other plans
The defined benefit plans expose the Group to actuarial risks, such as longevity risk, interest rate risk, inflation risk, and market (investment) risk including currency risk.
iii Cash payments
Cash payments to pension schemes comprise normal employer contributions by the Group; deficit contributions based on the agreed deficit payment plan with APS and NAPS; and cash sweep payments relating to additional payments made conditional on the level of cash in
a Employee benefit schemes recognised on the Balance Sheet
1 The present value of scheme liabilities for the US PRMB was €15 million at
2 APS has an accounting surplus under IAS 19, which would be available to the Group as a refund upon wind up of the scheme. This refund is restricted due to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee.
b Amounts recognised in the Income statement
Pension costs charged to operating result are:
1 In 2016, includes a past service gain of €51 million in respect of the US PMRB, which was classified as an exceptional item.
Pension costs charged/(credited) as finance costs are:
c Remeasurements recognised in the Statement of other comprehensive income
d Fair value of scheme assets
A reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of the fair value of scheme assets is set out below:
1 Includes employer contributions to APS of €109 million (2016: €112 million) and to NAPS of €748 million (2016: €763 million), of which deficit funding payments represented €104 million for APS (2016: €106 million) and €516 million for NAPS (2016: €638 million).
For both APS and NAPS, the Trustee has ultimate responsibility for decision making on investments matters, including the asset-liability matching strategy. The latter is a form of investing designed to match the movement in pension plan assets with the movement in the projected benefit obligation over time. The Trustees' investment committee adopts an annual business plan which sets out investment objectives and work required to achieve these objectives. The committee also deals with the monitoring of performance and activities, including work on developing the strategic benchmark to improve the risk return profile of the scheme where possible, as well as having a trigger based dynamic governance process to be able to take advantage of opportunities as they arise. The investment committee reviews the existing investment restrictions, performance benchmarks and targets, as well as continuing to develop the de-risking and liability hedging portfolio.
Both schemes use derivative instruments for investment purposes and to manage exposures to financial risks, such as interest rate, foreign exchange and liquidity risks arising in the normal course of business. Exposure to interest rate risk is managed through the use of Inflation-Linked Swap contracts. Foreign exchange forward contracts are entered into to mitigate the risk of currency fluctuations. For NAPS, a strategy exists to provide protection against the equity market downside risk by reducing some of the upside participation.
Scheme assets held by all defined benefit schemes operated by the Group at
All equities and bonds have quoted prices in active markets.
For APS and NAPS, the composition of the scheme assets is:
The strategic benchmark for asset allocations differentiates between 'return seeking assets' and 'liability matching assets'. Given the respective maturity of each scheme, the proportion for APS and NAPS vary. At
In addition to this, APS has an insurance contract with Rothesay Life which covers 24 per cent (2016: 24 per cent) of the pensioner liabilities for an agreed list of members. The insurance contract is based on future increases to pensions in line with inflation and will match future obligations on that basis for that part of the scheme. The insurance contract can only be used to pay or fund employee benefits under the scheme. With effect from
e Present value of scheme liabilities
A reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of the present value of the defined benefit obligations is set out below:
The defined benefit obligation comprises €28 million (2016: €33 million) arising from unfunded plans and €28,335 million (2016: €29,160 million) from plans that are wholly or partly funded.
f Effect of the asset ceiling
A reconciliation of the effect of the asset ceiling representing the IAS 19 irrecoverable surplus in APS is set out below:
g Actuarial assumptions
The principal assumptions used for the purposes of the actuarial valuations were as follows:
1 Discount rate is determined by reference to the yield on high quality corporate bonds of currency and term consistent with the scheme liabilities.
2 Rate of increase in pensionable pay is assumed to be in line with long-term market inflation expectations. The inflation rate assumptions for NAPS and APS are based on the difference between the yields on index-linked and fixed-interest long-term government bonds.
3 It has been assumed that the rate of increase of pensions in payment will be in line with CPI for APS and NAPS. The APS Trustee has proposed an additional discretionary increase of 20 basis points for the year to
Rate of increase in healthcare costs is based on medical trend rates of 6.5 per cent grading down to 5.0 per cent over seven years (2016: 6.75 per cent to 5.0 per cent over seven years).
In the US, mortality rates were based on the
h Sensitivity analysis
Reasonable possible changes at the reporting date to significant actuarial assumptions, holding other assumptions constant, would have affected the present value of scheme liabilities by the amounts shown:
Although the analysis does not take into account the full distribution of cash flows expected under the plan, it does provide an approximation of the sensitivity of the assumptions shown.
Pension contributions for APS and NAPS were determined by actuarial valuations made at
The Group has determined that the minimum funding requirements set out above for APS and NAPS will not be restricted. The present value of the contributions payable is expected to be available as a refund or a reduction in future contributions after they are paid into the scheme, subject to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee. This determination has been made independently for each scheme. As such, no additional liability is required.
Deficit payments in respect of local arrangements outside of the
In total, the Group expects to pay €593 million in employer contributions and deficit payments to its two significant post-retirement benefit plans in 2018. This is made up of €62 million and €339 million of deficit payments for APS and NAPS respectively as agreed at the latest triennial valuations. In addition, ongoing employer contributions for 2018 would be €5 million for APS and €187 million for NAPS if the NAPS scheme is not closed for future accrual. This excludes any additional deficit contribution that may become due depending on
32 Contingent liabilities and guarantees
The Group has certain contingent liabilities which at
In parallel, the
A large number of claimants have brought proceedings in the English courts to recover damages from
The Trustees of the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) have proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI for pensions in payment for the year to
In addition, a guarantee amounting to €260 million (2016: €273 million) was issued by a third party in favour of APS, triggered in the event of
The Group also has other guarantees and indemnities entered into as part of the normal course of business, which at
33 Related party transactions
The following transactions took place with related parties for the financial years to
1 Sales to associates: Consisted primarily of sales for airline related services to
2 Sales to and purchases from significant shareholders: Related to interline services and wet leases with
3 Purchases from associates: Mainly included €35 million of airport auxiliary services purchased from
4 Amounts owed by associates: For airline related services rendered, and included balances with Dunwoody of €1 million (2016: €1 million) and €1 million of services provided to
5 Amounts owed by and to significant shareholders: Related to
6 Amounts owed to associates: Consisted primarily of €1 million due to Dunwoody (2016: €1 million), €2 million to
During the year to
The Group has transactions with related parties that are conducted in the normal course of the airline business, which include the provision of airline and related services. All such transactions are carried out on an arm's length basis.
For the year to
In this instance, significant shareholders are those parties who have the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the Group, as a result of their shareholdings in the Group, but who do not have control over these policies.
Board of Directors and Management Committee remuneration
Compensation received by the Group's Board of Directors and Management Committee, in 2017 and 2016 is as follows:
The Company provides life insurance for all executive directors and the Management Committee. For the year to
No loan or credit transactions were outstanding with Directors or offices of the Group at
* Principal subsidiaries
1 The Group holds 49.9% of the total number of voting rights and 99.65% of the total nominal share capital in
2 The Group holds 49.9% of both the total nominal share capital and the total number of voting rights in
Investments accounted for using the equity method
Available-for-sale financial assets
The Group's principal available-for-sale financial assets are as follows:
Statement of directors' responsibilities
LIABILITY STATEMENT OF DIRECTORS FOR THE PURPOSES ENVISAGED UNDER ARTICLE 11.1.b OF SPANISH ROYAL DECREE 1362/2007 OF 19 OCTOBER (REAL DECRETO 1362/2007).
At a meeting held on
Alternative performance measures
The performance of the Group is assessed using a number of alternative performance measures (APMs), some of which have been identified as key performance indicators of the Group. The Group's results are presented both before and after exceptional items. Exceptional items are those that in management's view need to be separately disclosed by virtue of their size and incidence. Exceptional items are disclosed in note 4 of the consolidated financial statements. In addition, the Group's results are described using certain measures that are not defined under IFRS and are therefore considered to be APMs. These APMs are used to measure the outcome of the Group's strategy based on 'Unrivalled customer proposition', 'Value accretive and sustainable growth' and 'Efficiency and innovation'. The definition of each APM presented in this report, together with a reconciliation to the nearest measure prepared in accordance with IFRS is presented below.
Operating profit and lease adjusted operating margin
Operating profit is the Group operating result before exceptional items.
Lease adjusted operating margin is operating profit adjusted for leases as a percentage of revenue. The lease adjustment reduces the fleet rental charge to 0.67 of the annual reported charge. This is to reflect the embedded interest expense component in leases; 0.67 is a commonly used ratio in the airline industry.
Adjusted earnings per share
Earnings are based on results before exceptional items after tax and adjusted for earnings attributable to equity holders and interest on convertible bonds, divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares, adjusted for the dilutive impact of the assumed conversion of the bonds and employee share schemes outstanding.
EBITDAR is calculated as operating profit before exceptional items, depreciation, amortisation and impairment and aircraft operating lease costs.
The lease adjustment reduces aircraft operating lease costs to 0.67 of the annual reported charge. The inflation adjustment is applied to the fleet depreciation charge and is calculated using a 1.5 per cent inflation rate over the weighted average age of the on balance sheet fleet to allow for inflation and efficiencies of new fleet.
Invested capital is the fleet net book value at the balance sheet date, excluding progress payments for fleet not yet delivered and adjusted for inflation, plus the net book value of the remaining property, plant and equipment plus annual aircraft operating lease costs multiplied by 8. Intangible assets are excluded from the calculation.